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Story, Dale                                                                                                                              9/9/15


    • Independence from Spain, 1810-1821
      • Precursors: Age of Enlightment; French Invasion of Spain, 1808-1814; Mexico City unsuccessful coup against the Viceroy, 1808
      • Coalition of insurgents in states of Queretaro and Guanajuato (led by Miguel Hidalgo--creole, priest, liberal, executed 1811); native-born elites; and opponents of the monarchy in Spain (as wel as Napoleon's occupation of Spain).
      • Hidalgo, Diego Rivera, Chapultepec Castle. "Father" of Mexico. Initiated the Revolution on Sept. 16, 2010 with his mythical speech--El Grito.
      • El Grito, 2010
    • Texas Independence
    • Republic of Texas
    • U.S.-Mexican War, 1846-48. Aftermath of the acquisition of Texas by the U.S. Caused by Mexican resentment, confusin over the Texas boundary, claims of U.S. citizens, and President Polk's desire to annex Calfornia. Manifest Destiny. Mexico lost about half its territory.
    • Timeline Map of North American Territory
    • France, Spain, and Great Britain in Mexico--1862-67. Mexico canceled interest payments on foreign loans for two years. European states invaded. France decides to establish a Catholic empire and imposes Maximilian as Emperor. Mexican resistance is successful. Cinco de Mayo (May, 1862, Battle of Puebla, Mexican forces defeat an overwhelming French force)
    • Revolution
      • U.S. investment in Mexico during Porfiriato
      • U.S. ambassador under Taft helps plot to unseat Madero in 1911. But Pres. Wilson refuses recognition of Huerta government because it was unconstitutional. Wilson supplied arms to Huerta's enemies. 1914, Huerta government arrests some U.S. sailors in Tampico. Wilson ordered an apology and 21 gun salute. Huerta refused the salute. Wilson then seized Veracruz to cut off Huerta from European arms supplies. Huerta resigns.
      • U.S. recognizes Carranza government in 1915 after Carranza promises to protect U.S. lives and property.
      • Villa attacks Columbus, NM and Wilson orders Pershing into Mexico to pursue Villa. Carranza protests--relations between U.S. and Mexico deteriorate significantly.
      • Article 27 of the 1917 Constitution provided for nationalization of subsoil rights. The U.S. expressed concern over potential natinalization of oil companies.
      • Also agrarian reform took much land from U.S. private investors and payments were slow or delayed.
    • Buscareli agreement with Obregon in 1923--owners of petroleum land before 1917 were guaranteed ownership. Also, compensation for expropriated land in agrarian reform was guaranteed.
    • Under Calles (1924-28)petroleum ownership acquired after 1917 limited to 59 years. Foreign owners of agrarian land required to divest majority share. Dwight Morrow (father-in-law of Charles Lindbergh) appointed U.S.ambassador and pushed good will. Bucareli Agreement is reaffirmed.
    • Good Neighbor Policy--non-intervention--after oil expropriation in Mexico in 1938 the U.S. limited it self to helping the companies negotiate with Mexico over a just compensation.