UTA Home
Playing for Change
Right to Education
Fight human trafficking and sex slavery



       I.      Dependency in Foreign Relations

a.       Overview

                                                              i.      Monroe Doctrine—19th century

                                                            ii.      Apex of intervention—1895-1933

                                                          iii.      Good Neighbor Policy—FDR—1933-44

                                                          iv.      Postwar—collective security—multilateralization of Monroe Doctrine—OAS

b.      Monroe Doctrine—1823

                                                              i.      Russian claim

                                                            ii.      Holy Alliance

                                                          iii.      Unilateral—enforce?

                                                          iv.      Roosevelt Corollary, 1904—“Big Stick” Diplomacy

                                                            v.      Taft, 1908-12—“Dollar Diplomacy”

                                                          vi.      Wilson , 1912-20—idealistic and paternalistic

                                                        vii.      Roosevelt Corollary repudiated in 1928

c.       Interventionist Era

                                                              i.      Cuba

1.      Spanish-American War

2.      Platt Amendment—intervene/Guantanamo—“The Platt Amendment” by Cosme de la Torriente

3.      1905-1933— US military, financial advisors, investment

4.      Post-1930s—US “puppets?”

                                                            ii.      Mexico

1.      Earlier—Mexican War, 1846-47—Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo— France , Spain , & Gr. Britain , 1862-67—Maximilian (Cinco de Mayo).

2.      Revolution—Madero— Veracruz —Villa, Columbus NM , Pershing.

                                                          iii.      Panama and Canal

1.      “The End of Hegemony?  Panama and the United States,” by Peter M. Sanchez

2.      American Experience:  The Panama Canal.  PBS Video.  1 hour, 22 minutes.  With additional resources.

3.      France, Philippe Bunau-Varilla (B-V), Colombia, TR

4.      Nov. 2-6, 1903, Panamanian revolt, declaration of independence, recognition by US

5.      B-V devised plot, wife sewed flag from Macy’s silk, B-V appointed Pan. ambassador to US, signs Hay/B-V treat (1st Canal Treaty—“in perpetuity” and “as if it were sovereign”

6.      New Treaty, 1977-78

7.      1989, US Invasion

8.      Dec. 31, 1999, sovereignty transferred to Panama , but US reserves right to intervene.

                                                          iv.      Nicaragua

                                                            v.      Common theme?

d.      Good Neighbor

                                                              i.      Roosevelt Corollary and Platt Amendment abrogated

                                                            ii.      Mexico oil expropriation, 1938, a test of non-intervention

e.       Postwar Multilateralism

                                                              i.      OAS

                                                            ii.      IADB

                                                          iii.      UN Economic Commission on Latin America/A4P

f.       Postwar Interventions

                                                              i.      Guatemala , 1954

                                                            ii.      Cuba--Bay of Pigs and assassination attempts, early-1960s—“Economic Coercion as an Instrument of Foreign Policy,” by Anna P. Schreiber, World Politics.

                                                          iii.      Dominican Republic , 1965

                                                          iv.      Contras and Nicaragua , 1980s

                                                            v.      Grenada intervention, early-1980s

                                                          vi.      Panama intervention, 1989

    II.      Economic Dependency

a.       Foreign Trade

                                                              i.      Ms & Xs

                                                            ii.      1-2 leading Xs

                                                          iii.      Geographic concentration

b.      Foreign Capital

                                                              i.      Private

                                                            ii.      Public

c.       Effects

                                                              i.      Deteriorating terms of trade

                                                            ii.      Boom and bust

                                                          iii.      Decapitalization

                                                          iv.      Growth but social costs (equity)

                                                            v.      Dualities

 III.      Late Development

a.       Occurs after U.S.

b.      Role model (younger sibling ex.)

c.       Demonstration Effect

d.      Revolution of Rising Expectations

e.       Imbalance—traits of modernity easily acquired but not assimilated

f.       Small is Beautiful, E.F. Schumacher (“intermediate technology for development in the third world,” Less is More, Natural Capitalism, Voluntary Simplicity)

g.      Technology (capital vs. labor-intensive)

h.      Population growth

i.        Urbanization (primate cities)

 IV.      Development Strategies

a.       Conservative Modernization

                                                              i.      Accept dependency, open eco., intl. division of labor

                                                            ii.      Monetarism (control inflation through demand), austerity (exs.),   IMF, Milton Friedman, Chicago School

b.      Progressive Modernization

                                                              i.      Manage dependency (protectionism, f.i.), reform (tax, ag.), UNECLA, Raul Prebisch

                                                            ii.      Structuralism (control inflation through supply)

c.       Revolution

                                                              i.      Reject capitalist dependency, closed economy? autarchy?

                                                            ii.      Equity, state role, basic needs

                                                          iii.      Cuba

    V.      Inflation Rates

 VI.      Supply and Demand Curve

a.       If the Demand Curve shifts “downward,” prices are reduced (Monetarism)

b.      If the Supply Curve shifts “upward” prices are reduced (Structuralism).

VII.      Dependency Articles

a.       Dependency Analysis of Latin America: Some Criticisms, Some Suggestions.  C. Richard Bath and Dilmus D. James—Classic overview of dependency theory.

b.      On the Origins of ISI: The Latin American Cement Industry, 1900-30.  Xavier Tafunell—Challenges the relationship between ISI, post-Depression, and populism.

c.       The Neoliberal Turn in Latin America: The Cycle of Ideas and the Search for an Alternative. Ana Margheritis and Anthony W. Pereira.