Story, Dale
POLS 3310
1/29/14
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR TEST ONE
(Note: All data are hypothetical)
I. Define and identify each of the following. Cite examples if possible.
Example of a multiple-choice question:
Which of the following is most associated with explanation and prediction: (a) cause and effect; (b) spurious relationship; (c) necessary and sufficient relationship; (d) history does not repeat itself; or (e) measurement error.
Voter Participation | Voter Participation | |||
Year | (in %) | Year | (in %) | |
1945 | 55 | 1975 | 73 | |
1950 | 58 | 1980 | 75 | |
1955 | 60 | 1985 | 72 | |
1960 | 63 | 1990 | 68 | |
1965 | 65 | 1995 | 66 | |
1970 | 65 | 2000 | 61 |
Graph the “relationship” (year is along the X-axis and voter participation is along the Y-axis).
Is/are there any “trends” across time in voter participation?
If so, what direction(s)? Is it linear? Curvilinear?
Electoral District | Level of Voter Participation (%) | Level of Urbanization (%) | Percent of Independent Voters |
1 | 40 | 50 | 10 |
2 | 58 | 45 | 28 |
3 | 47 | 60 | 18 |
4 | 70 | 70 | 50 |
5 | 60 | 75 | 36 |
6 | 55 | 30 | 25 |
7 | 68 | 35 | 47 |
8 | 62 | 55 | 45 |
9 | 42 | 40 | 14 |
10 | 53 | 65 | 20 |
Hypothesis 1: Voter participation is determined partly by the level of urbanization.
Identify the independent and dependent variables.
Graph the relationship.
Conclusion:
The hypothesis is confirmed. (If so, is the relation positive or negative)
The hypothesis is disconfirmed.
The hypothesis should be refined. (If so, briefly explain)
Hypothesis 2: Voter participation is determined partly by the percent of “independent” voters.
Identify the independent and dependent variables.
Graph the relationship.
Conclusion:
The hypothesis is confirmed. (If so, is the relation positive or negative)
The hypothesis is disconfirmed.
The hypothesis should be refined. (If so, briefly explain)
Units of Analysis | X | Y |
1 | 76 | 50 |
2 | 36 | 70 |
3 | 96 | 44 |
4 | 20 | 82 |
5 | 50 | 64 |
6 | 44 | 66 |
7 | 16 | 84 |
8 | 60 | 58 |
9 | 24 | 78 |
10 | 86 | 48 |
X is the independent variable and Y is the dependent variable.
Graph the relationship very accurately. From your graph, devise a prediction equation (estimate the y intercept and the slope, or “rise over run”). Use your equation to produce predicted values of Y from the given values of X. Finally, calculate the differences between predicted Y and the given values of Y (showing the negative and positive signs).
Party A | 38 | 398 |
Party B | 162 | 352 |
Minority | Majority |
The values in cells can be illustrated in four options: absolute count, total %, row %, and column %. The table above has the absolute counts. Produce four additional tables:
Which number demonstrates the strongest relationship between ethnicity and party vote?
VI.
Education and Presidential Vote (in percentages)
Education | |||
Presidential Vote | Elementary | Secondary | College |
Goldwater | 17 | 23 | 43 |
Johnson | 55 | 57 | 46 |
Missing Values | 28 | 20 | 11 |
TOTAL | 100 | 100 | 100 |
Ignore the “Missing values” category. Recall that Johnson won the election handily.
Identify the dependent (Presidential Vote) and independent variables (Education).
What are the greatest differences shown in the table (Goldwater to Johnson in Elementary and Secondary--and Goldwater increase from Secondary to College)?
What basic hypotheses might the table be intended to test (impact of education on presidential vote)?
What is the conclusion to be drawn from this table (Democrats tend to draw more from lower levels of education; while Republicans tend to increase their vote as education increases)?
VIII. Devise and describe an experimental research design to evaluate the impact of introducing legalized gambling on government revenues in a Texas municipality. Do not aim for a “perfect” design, but rather a “realistic” design.
Describe the extent to which you are assuring (or not—again, be realistic) the internal validity (extrinsic and instrinsic factors).